Gender Education and Advocacy

edging Medical Advisory Bulletin

2 July, 2003


Gender Education & Advocacy, Inc.
P.O. Box 33724
Decatur, GA 30033-0724

GEA is concurrently releasing a medical advisory about injected silicone; this comprehensive list of references about injected silicone use; a public service advertisement, “Dangerous Curves Ahead;” and the pamphlet “Cheekbones from Hell.”

Silicone Injection: A Comprehensive Bibliography

A note on injectable silicone.

Albany -- It's a procedure called “pumping” and it's already killed one Albany man. (2004, 21 January). WALB TV, Albany, Georgia.

Anderton, B. (2003, 12 September). Deaths highlight illegal silicone use: Trans “pumping parties” reportedly gaining popularity. Washington Blade. Online at

Ashley, F.L., Braley, S., Rees, T.D., Goulian, D., & Ballantyne, D.L. (1967). The present status of silicone fluid in soft tissue augmentation. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 39, 411-420.

Ashley, F.L., Braley, S., & McNall, E.G. (1971, April). The current status of silicone injection therapy. Surgery Clinics of North America, 51(2), 501-509.

Authorities: Man who gave silicione injections surrenders. (2003, 13 September). Associated Press.

Auto-shop silicone used for injection. (1993, 18 February). Oakland (CA) Tribune, A-8.

Ballantyne, D.L., Rees, T.D., & Seidman, L. (1965). Silicone fluid: Response to massive subcutaneous injections of dimethylpolysiloxane fluid in animals. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 36, 330-338.

Baruch, J., Wechsler, J., Bodin, B., & Raulo, Y. (1982). [Slowly evolving breast siliconoma]. Ann Chir Plast, 27(2), 183-184.

Ben-Hur, N., & Neuman, Z. (1965, December). Siliconoma; Another cutaneous response to dimethylpolysiloxane. Experimental study in mice. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 36(6), 629-631.

Berenguer, J., Luburich, P., Tomas, X., Clavero, J.A., & Pujol, T. (1993). Injected silicone: Radiologic appearance. Canadian Association of Radiology Journal, 44(4), 296-297.

Berger, R.A. (1966). Dermatologic experience with liquid silicones. New York Journal of Medicine, 66, 2523-2526.

Ben-Hur, N., Ballantyne, D.L., Rees, T.D., & Seidman, I. (1967). Local and systemic effects of dimethylpolysiloxane fluid in mice. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 39, 423-426.

Bigata, X., Ribera, M., Bielsa, I., & Ferrandiz, C. (2001, February). Adverse granulomatous reaction after cosmetic dermal silicone injection. Dermatol Surg, 27(2), 198-200.

Bjerno, T., Basse, P.N., Siemssen, P.A., & Miller, T.D. (1993). Injektion of hjviskose væsker: Akut eller sen excision? (Injection of high viscosity liquids. Acute or delayed excision?). Ugeskr Laeger, 155(24), 1876-1878.

Black market beauty: Silicone lip treatments turn ugly. (2002, 28 January).

Blakeslee, S. (1991, 24 July). Other remedies at issue (health aspects of injectable silicone, collagen from cattle). The New York Times, 111, A3.

Blocksma, R., & Braley, B.S. (1965). The silicones in plastic surgery. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 35(1), 366-370.

Bommer, J., Ritz, E., & Waldherr, R. (1981). Silicone-induced splenomegaly. New England Journal of Medicine, 305, 1077-1079.

Bommer, J., Ritz, E., Waldherr, R., & Gastner, M. (1981). Silicone cell inclusions causing multiorgan foreign body reaction in dialysed patients. Lancet, 1, 1314.

Boo-Chai, K. (1969). The complications of augmentation mammoplasty by silicone injection. British Journal of Plastic Surgery, 22, 281-285.

Braley, S. (1964). Commentary on silicones. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 34(6), 632.

Braley, S. (1970). Silicone fluids with added adulterants. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 45(3), 288-289.

Braley, S. (1971). The status of injectable silicone fluid for soft tissue augmentation. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 47, 343-344.

Bridges, A.J., Conley, C., Wang, G., Burns, D.E., & Vasey, F.B. (1993). A clinical and immunologic evaluation of women with silicone breast implants and symptoms of rheumatic disease. Annals of Internal Medicine, 118, 929-936.

Brody, G.L., & Frey, C.F. (1968). The peritoneal response to silicone fluid: A histologic study. Archives of Surgery, 96, 237-241.

Brozena, S.J., Fenske, N.A., Cruse, C.W., et al. (1988). Human adjuvant disease following augmentation mammoplasty. Archives of Dermatology, 123, 1383-1386.

Celli, B., Textor, S., & Kovnat, D.M. (1978). Acute pneumonitis after subcutaneous injection of silicone in transsexual men. American Journal of Medical Science, 275, 81-85.

Chaplin, C.H. (1969). Loss of both breasts from injections of silicone (with additive). Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 44(5), 447-450.

Chastre, J., Basset, F., Viau, F., Dournovo, P., Bouchama, A., Akesbi, A., & Gilbert, C. (1983). Acute pneumonitis after subcutaneous injections of silicone in transsexual men. New England Journal of Medicine, 308(13), 764-467.

Chastre, J., Brun, P., & Gibert, C. (1986). Insuffisance respiratoire aigue apres injection illicite de silicone: Apport du lavage broncho-alveolaire. (Acute respiratory insufficiency following illicit silicone injections: The value of broncho-alveolar lavage). Bulletin de L'Academe Nationale de Medecine (Paris), 170(4), 531-535.

Chastre, J., Brun, P., Soler, P., Basset, F., Trouillet, J.L., Fagon, J.Y., Gilbert, C., & Hance, A.J. (1987). Acute and latent pneumonitis after subcutaneous injections of silicone in transsexual men. American Review of Respiratory Disease, 135(1), 236-240.

Christie, A., Weinberger, K., & Deitrich, M. (1977). Silicone lymphadenopathy and synovitis. Journal of the American Medical Association, 237, 1463-1464.

Cimons, M. (1992, 12 June). FDA assails wrinkle treatment as illegal. Los Angeles Times, 110, A4.

Conway, H., & Goulian, D. (1963). Experience with an injectable silastic RTV as a subcutaneous prosthetic material. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 32, 294-302.

Corrin, B. (1982). Letter to the editor: Silicone lynphadenopathy. Journal of Clinical Pathology, 35, 901-902.

Coulaud, J.M., Labrousse, J., Carli, P., Galliot, M., Vilde, F., & Lissac, J. (1983). Adult respiratory distress syndrome and silicone injection. Toxicological European Research. Recherce Europeenne en Toxicologie, 5(4), 171-174.

Deapen, D.M., Pike, M.C., Casagrande, J.T., & Brody, G.S. (1986). The relationship between breast cancer and augmentation mammaplasty: an epidemiologic study. Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, 77, 361-368.

Decholnoky, T. (1970). Augmentation mammoplasty: Survey of complications in 10,941 patients by 265 surgeons. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 45, 573.

Devecy, M., Selmanpakodlu, N., U GÜnhan, Ö. (1997). Diagnosis of silicone lymphadenopathy. Gazi Medical Journal, 8, 93-95.

Devlin, J. (2003, 21 August). Suspect arrested in Houston silicone injection case. Texas Triangle.

Devlin, J. (2003, 4 September). TG activist compiles information to fight silicone deaths. Texas Triangle

Diaz, J. (2001, 2 November). Miramar transsexual rejects plea deal in silicone death. Miami Herald.

Dugowson, C.E., Daling, J., Koepsell, T.D., Voigt, L., & Nelson, J.L. (1992). Silicone breast implants and risk for rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis & Rheumatism, 35, Suppl. S66.

Duffy, M.J, & Woods, J.E. (1994, August). Health risks of failed silicone gel breast implants: A 30-year clinical experience. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 94(2), 295-299.

Duong, T, Schonfeld, A.J., Yungbluth, M., & Slotten, R. (1998, April). Acute pneumopathy in a nonsurgical transsexual. Chest, 113(4), 1127-1129.

Dying for beauty: Silicone injections. (2001, 29 March).

Edgerton, M.T., & Wells, J.H. (1976). Indications for and pitfalls of soft-tissue augmentation with liquid silicone. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 58, 157.

Ellenbogen, R., & Rubin L. (1975). Injectable fluid silicone therapy: Human morbidity and mortality. Journal of the American Medical Association, 234, 309-309.

Endo, L.P., Edwards, N.L., Longley, S., Carman, L.C., & Panush, R.S. (1987). Silicone and rheumatic diseases. Seminars in Arthritis & Rheumatism, 17, 112-118.

Farina, L.A. (1997). Scrotal granuloma caused by oil migrating from the hip in 2 transsexual males (scrotal sclerosing lipogranuloma) Arch. Esp. Urol., 50(1), 51-53.

Farina, L.A., Palacio, V., Salles, M., Fernandez-Villanueva, D, Vidal, B., & Menendez, P. (1997, January-February). [Scrotal granuloma caused by oil migrating from the hip in 2 transsexual males (scrotal sclerosing lipogranuloma)]. Arch Esp Urol, 50(1), 51-53.

FDA backgrounder: Current and useful information from the Food and Drug Administration: Collagen and Liquid Silicone Injections. (n.d.).

Feder, B.J. (1991, 29 December). A war baby, versatile silicone now shows up everywhere. The New York Times, 141, F10(N), F10(L).

FL TS faces murder charge in silicone death. (2001, 2 November). Miami Herald

Florida fugitive arrested in Greenville. (2001, 13 April). Yahoo .

Fock, K.M., Feng, P.H., & Tey, B.H. (1984). Autoimmune disease developing after augmentation mammoplasty: Report of 3 cases. Journal of Rheumatology, 11, 89-100.

Freeman, B.S., et al. (1966). Experiments with injectable plastic. American Journal of Surgery, 112, 534-536.

Frey, H.P., Lemperle, G., & Exner, K. (1992, July). [Siliconoma and rheumatic symptoms -- a familiar and a questionable complication of silicone implantation]. Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir, 24(4), 171-177; discussion 178.

Gabriel, S.E., Beard, C.M., Kurland, L.T., Woods, J.E., O'Fallon, W.M., & Melton, L.J., III. (in press). Trends in the utilization of silicone breast implants, 1964-1991, and methodology for a population-based study of outcomes. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, in press.

Gabriel, S.E., O'Fallon, W.M., Kurland, L.T., Beard, C.M., Woods, J.E., & Melton, L.J., III. (1994). Risk of connective-tissue diseases and other disorders after breast implantation. New England Journal of Medicine, 330(24), 1697-1702.

Goldman, J.A., Lamm, S.H., Cooper, W., & Cooper, L. (1992). Breast implants are not associated with an excess of connective tissue disease (CTD). Arthritis & Rheumatism, 35, Supp. S65.

Greer, R. (1993, 17 February). Silicone injection killed man, police say. Atlanta Journal-Constitution, B6.

Gutierrez, F.J., & Espinoza, L.R. (1990). Progressive systemic sclerosis complicated by severe hypertension: Reversal after silicone implant removal. American Journal of Medicine, 89, 390-392.

Gurdin, M. (1972). Augmentation mammoplasty-silicone injections for breast augmentation. In R.M. Goldwyn (Ed.), The unfavorable result in plastic surgery, pp. 365-367. Boston: Little, Brown & Co.

Gardiner, S. (2003, 27 March). Silicone injections likely killed transexual. Newsday.

Habal, M.B. (1984). The biologic basis for the clinical application of the silicones. Archives of Surgery, 119, 843- 848.

Habal, M.B., Powell, M.L., & Schimpff, R.D. (1980, July). Immunological evaluation of the tumorigenic response to implanted polymers. Journal of Biomedical Material Research, 14(4), 455-466.

Hage, J.J., Kanhai, R.C., Oen, A.L., van Diest, P.J., & Karim, R.B. (2001, March). The devastating outcome of massive subcutaneous injection of highly viscous fluids in male-to-female transsexuals. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 107(3), 734-741.

Hilts, P.J. (1991, 2 February). Officials say doctors still injecting silicone. (Atlanta) Daily News, 14A.

Hilts, P.J. (1992, 18 January). Strange history of silicone held many warning signs. The New York Times, 141, 1(N), 1(L).

Hilts, P.J. (1992, 6 February). Under pressure, doctor stops silicone injections. The New York Times, 141, A12(N), B7(L).

Hilts, P.J. (1992, 1 March). New York doctor agrees to stop injecting silicone. The New York Times, 141, 12(N), 24(L).

Hitosi, S., Ito, Y., Takahara, K., Fujita, T., & Ogata, E. (1991). A case of malignant hypertension and scleroderma after cosmetic surgery. Japanese Journal of Medicine, 30, 97-100.

Holm, C,, & Muhlbauer, W. (1998, May-June). Toxic shock syndrome in plastic surgery patients: Case report and review of the literature. Aesthetic and Plastic Surgery, 22(3), 180-184.

Indonesian transvestite dies after injecting himself with silicon. (2003, n.d., but early in the year). Associated Press.

Immunological Effects of Silicone. (n.d.). Federal Drug Administration.

James, S.J., Pogribny, M., Pogribny, I., & Miller, B.J. (n.d.). Foreign body carcinogenesis with silicone implants is associated with DNA strand breaks and p53 mutations.

Jansen, T., Kossmann, E., & Plewig, G. (1993, October). [Siliconoma: An interdisciplinary problem]. Hautarzt, 44(10), 636-643.

Kopf, E.H. (1966, March). Injectable silicones. Rocky Mountain Medical Journal, 63(3), 34-36.

Kopf, E.H., Vinnik, C.A., Bongiovi, J.J., & Dombrowski, D.J. (1976). Complications of silicone injections. Rocky Mountain Medical Journal, 75, 77-80.

Kubota, J., Fujino, T., Sugymoto, C., & Abe, T. (1984). Long term complications caused by injected silicone gel and paraffin oil. Keio Journal of Medicine, 33, 127-136.

Kulick, D. (1998). Travesti: Sex, gender and culture among Brazilian transgendered prostitutes. Chicago: The University of Illinois Press.

Kumagai, Y., Abe, C., & Shiokawaya, Y. (1979). Scleroderma after cosmetics surgery: Four cases of human adjuvant disease. Arthritis & Rheumatism, 22, 532-537.

Kumagai, Y., Shiokawa, Y., Medsger, T.A., Jr., & Rodman, G.P. (1984). Clinical spectrum of connective tissue disease after cosmetic surgery: Observations on eighteen patietns and a review of the Japanese literature. Arthritis & Rheumatism, 27, 1-12.

Lai, Y.L., Weng, C.J., & Noordhoff, M.S. (2001, June). Breast reconstruction with TRAM flap after subcutaneous mastectomy for injected material (siliconoma). British Journal of Plastic Surgery, 54(4), 331-334.

Lip lifts: Is bigger better? (1989, September). Vogue, 179, 586.

Lorenz, R., Stark, G.B., & Hedde, J.P. (1997). [The value of sonography for the discovery of complications after the implantation of silicone gel prostheses for breast augmentation or reconstruction]. Rofo Fortschr Geb Rontgenstr Neuen Bildgeb Verfahr, 166(3), 233-237.

Luscombe, R. (2003, 25 May). A body to die for. The Observer.,6903,963025,00.html.

Man sentenced for silicone injections. (2004, 13 February). Associated Press.

Marzoni, F.A., Upchurch, S.E., & Lambert, C.J. (1959). An experimental study of silicone as a soft tissue substitute. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 24, 600.

McCurdy, H.X.H., & Solomons, E.T. (1977). Forensic examination of toxicological specimens for dimethopolysiloxane (silicone oil). Journal of the Annals of Toxicology, 1, 221-223.

McMahon, P. (2003, 24 May). Silicone defendant guilty of murder. Sun-Sentinel (South Florida).§ion=/printstory

Megumi, Y. (1989, Winter). Immediate breast reconstruction with subpectoral implantation after transaxillary subcutaneous mastectomy for siliconoma. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, 13(1), 27-32.

Meigel, W., Winzer, M., Berg, A., & Wolff, H.H. (1989, 15 September). Zeitschrift Hautkr, 64(9), 815-816.

Millard, D.R., & Maisels, D.D. (1966). Silicone granuloma of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. American Journal of Surgery, 112, 119.

Mishra, R. (2003, 19 May). Back-room plastic surgeries raise alarm: Transvestites, immigrant victims reluctant to inform authorities. Boston Globe.

Mitnick, J.S. (1993). Fine needle aspiration biopsy in patients with augmentation prostheses and a palpable mass. Annals of Plastic Surgery, 31, 241-244.

Musbach, T. (2003, 22 August). Injections kill three transgender women.

N.Y. Doctors agree to stop injecting silicone. (1992, May). FDA Consumer, 26(4), 2-3.

Nosanchuk, J.S. (1968). Silicone granuloma in breast. Archives of Surgery, 97, 583-585.

A note on injectable silicone. (n.d.).

Oberg, T. (29 July, 2003). Man's desire to look like a woman costs him his life. ABC 13 Eyewitness News (Houston).

O'Hare, P. (2003, 9 August). Deaths spotlight silicone shots: Direct injection used in transgender community, police say. Houston Chronicle.

O'Hare, P. (2003, 20 August). Silicone suspected in third death: Injections used to enhance body. Houston Chronicle.

Ohtake, N., Itoh, M., & Shioya, N. (1992). Postoperative disorders of augmentation mammaplasty by the injection method in Japan. In U.T. Hinderer (Ed.), Plastic surgery 1992, Vol. 2, pp. 677-678. New York: Elsevier.

Okano, Y., Nishikai, M., & Sato, A. (1984). Scleroderma, primary biliary cirrhosis, and Sjogren's syndrome after cosmetic breast augmentation with silicone injection: A case report of possible human adjuvant disease. Annals of Reheumat. Disease, 43, 520-522.

Orentreich, D.S. (2000, October). Liquid injectable silicone: Techniques for soft tissue augmentation. Clinics in Plastic Surgery, 27(4), 595-612.

Ortiz-Montaserio, F., & Trigos, I. (1972). Management of patients with complications from injections of foreign material into the breast. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 50(1), 42-47.

Palestro, C.J., Chau, P., & Goldsmith, S.J. (1992). Gallium-67 uptake after breast and hip augmentation with silicone. Clinical Nuclear Medicine, 17(11), 897-898.

Parsons, R.W., & Titering, H.R. (1977). Management of the silicone injected breast. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 60, 534.

“Pumping party” trial: “Bizarre, flamboyant, unusual”: Transsexuals testify against men accused of deadly silicone injection. (2003, 12 May).

Reed, W.A., & Kittle, C.E. (1959). Observations on toxicity and use of antifoam A. Archives of Surgery, 78.

Rees, T.D., Ballantyne, D.L., & Hawthorne, G.A. (1970). Silicone fluid research: A follow-up summary. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 46, 50.

Rees, T.D., Platt, J.M., & Ballantyle, D.L. (1965). An investigation of cutaneous response to dimethylpolysiloxane (silicone fluid) in animals and humans. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 35, 131.

Rees, T.D., et al. (1967). Visceral response to subcutaneous and intraperitoneal injections of silicone in mice. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 39, 402-410.

Richards, C. (2003, June). Silicone revisted. Transgender Community News, 8-9, 28.

Rivera, C. (1992, 29 February). U.S. files suit to halt silicone use by doctor. Los Angeles Times, 111, A25.

Sadusk, J.F. (1966). Letter to the editor: FDA's position on injected silicones. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 37(3), 251.

Sahn, E.E., Garen, P.D., Silver, R.M., & Maize, J.C. (1990). Scleroderma following augmentation mammoplasty: Report of a case and a review of the literature. Archives of Dermatology, 126, 1190-1202.

Sanger, J.R., Matloub, H.S., Yousif, N.J., & Komorowski, R. (1992). Silicone gel infiltration of a peripheral nerve and a constrictive neuropathy following rupture of a breast prosthesis. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 89(5), 949-952.

Schoeller, T., Gschnitzer, C., Wechselberger, G., Otto, A., Hussl, H., & Piza-Katzer, H. (2000, November). [Chronic recurrent, locally destructive siliconomas after breast augmentation by liquid silicone oil]. Chirurgerie, 71(11), 1370-1373.

Schusterman, M.A., Kroll, S.S., Reece, G.P., et al. (1993). Incidence of autoimmune disease in patients after breast reconstruction with silicone gel implants versus autogenous tissue: A preliminary report. Annals of Plastic Surgery, 31, 1-6.

Sclafani, A.P., & Romo, T. III. (2000). Injectable fillers for facial soft tissue enhancement. Facial Plastic Surgery, 16(1), 29-34.

Selmanowitz, V.J., & Orentreich, N. (1977, November-December). Medical-grade fluid silicone: A monographic review. Journal of Dermatology and Surgical Oncology, 3(6), 597-611.

Sergott, T.J., Limoli, J.P., Baldwin, C.M., & Laub, D.R. (1986). Human adjuvant disease, possible autoimmune disease after silicone implantation: A review of the literature, case studies, and speculation for the future. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 78, 104-114.

Silicone holocaust. (n.d.).

Silicone injected at parties in South Florida: Health Department calls it an epidemic. (2001, 29 March).

Silicone pneumonitis. (1983). Lancet, 2, 833.

Solomons, E.T., & Jones, J.K. (1975, January). The determination of polydimethylsiloxane (silicone oil) in biological materials: A case report. Journal of Forensic Science, 20(1), 191-199.

Spiera, H. (1988). Scleroderma after augmentation mammoplasty. Journal of the American Medical Association, 260, 236-238.

Spiera, H., & Kerr, L.D. (1993). Scleroderma following silicone implantation:

A culumulative experience of 11 cases. Journal of Rheumatology, 20, 958-961.

Spira, M, & Rosen, T. (1993). Injectable soft tissue substitutes. Clinics in Plastic Surgery, 20, 181-188.

Symmers, W. St. C. (1968). Silicone mastitis in topless waitresses. British Medical Journal, 3, 19-22.

Tobin, T. (2001, 18 April). “Tis' food, drink, and injections.” St. Petersburg Times (FL).

Transsexual jailed for injecting silicone. (2003, 1 August). / Network.

Travis, W.D., Balogh, K., & Abraham, J.L. (1985). Silicone granulomas: Report of three cases and review of the literature. Human Pathology, 16, 19-27.

Utreski, N.F., O'Brien, J.J., Courtis, E.H., & Becker, M.D. (1979). Augmentation mammoplasty associated with a severe systemic illness. Annals of Plastic Surgery, 3, 445-447.

Varga, J., Schumacher, H.R., & Jimenez, S.A. (1989). Systemic sclerosis after augmentation mammoplasty with silicone implants. Annals of Internal Medicine, 111, 377-383.

Vilde, F., Arkwright, S., Galliott, M., Galle, P., Labrousse, J., & Lissac, J. (1983). (Fatal pneumopathy linked to subcutaneous injections of liquid silicone into soft tissue). Annales de Pathologie, 3(4), 307-312.

Villa, A., & Sparacio, F. (2000, May). Severe pulmonary complications after silicone fluid injection. American Journal of Emergendy Medicine, 18(3), 336-337.

Weisman, M.H., Vecchione, T.R., Albert, D., Moore, L.T., & Mueller, M.R. (1988). Connective-tissue disease following breast augmentation: A preliminary test of the human adjuvant disease hypothesis. Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, 82, 626-630.

Wigley, F.M., Miller, R., Hockberg, M.C, & Steen, V. (1992). Augmentation mammoplasty in patients with systemic sclerosis: Data from the Baltimore Scleroderma Research Center and Pittsburgh Scleroderma Data Bank. Arthritis & Rheumatism, 35, Suppl. S46.

Winer, L.H., et al. (1964). Tissue reactions to injected silicone liquids. Archives of Dermatology, 90, 588-593.

Wustrack, K.O., & Zarem, H.A. (1979). Surgical management of silicone mastitis. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 63, 224.

Xavier, J.M. (2000). Final report of the Washington Transgender Needs Assessment Survey. Administration for HIV and AIDS, Government of the District of Columbia, Washington, D.C.

Zager, W. (2001). Silicone flash after laser use. Archives of Otolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery, 127, 418-421.

Ziegler, V.V., Haustein, U-F., Mehlhorn, J., Munzberger, H., & Rennau, H. (1986). Quarzinduzierte sklerodermie: Sklerodermie-ahnliches syndrom oder echte progressive sklerodermie? Dermatologie Monatasschr., 172, 86-90.

Also On This Website:

Silicone Use: Illicit, Disfiguring, Dangerous
An original GEA advisory on the dangers of injectable silicone.

“Dangerous Curves Ahead” Public Service Announcement Adobe Acrobat Required
The original public service announcement as put out by AEGIS, Inc.

Cheekbones From Hell, or Injectable Silicone: Bad News
More information, including vignettes based on experiences of actual people with injected silicone.

Pómulos del infierno o La silicona inyectada: ¡Malas noticias! In Spanish
Más información, incluyendo anécdotas de personas reales sobre sus experiencias con silicona inyectada.

Gender Education and Advocacy (GEA) is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit corporation which serves as a clearinghouse for information about transgender issues. GEA maintains the website, which is the organization’s main tool for information dissemination. GEA is the successor organization of the American Educational Gender Information Service.